Coffee Trading Defined and Explained
Coffee is the second most commonly traded commodity in the world (measured by monetary volume), trailing only crude oil as a source of foreign exchange to developing countries, according to the International Coffee Organization. While production and consumption of many commodities tend to rise and fall based on price, shifts in coffee supply and demand are not so prone to price changes as people continue to look for their morning cup of coffee at whatever the price is. An important distinction for coffee futures traders is that two different types of coffee are traded on the world's exchanges.
Commodities Trading Coffee Prices & Rates
US Coffee Market
Coffee futures and options are traded in New York on the Intercontinental Exchange (ICE, formerly the New York Board of Trade).
- The size of the Coffee "KC" futures contract is 37,500 pounds
- Coffee commodity trading is now done electronically.
- Coffee futures prices are quoted in cents per pound, and the minimum price fluctuation is 5/100 cent/pound, equivalent to $18.75 per contract.
- A 1-cent change in price equals $375.
- The coffee futures contract months are March, May, July, September and December.
- The contract prices physical delivery of exchange-grade green beans from one of 19 countries of origin in a licensed warehouse to one of several ports in the United States and Europe.
International Coffee Market
London coffee futures are traded on the Euronext.liffe.
- The size of this coffee futures contract is 10 metric tons.
- Coffee futures prices are quoted in U.S. dollars per metric ton with the minimum price movement $1 per ton or $10 for the contract.
- Contract delivery months are January, March, May, July, September and November with 10 delivery months available for trading.
Other international exchanges that trade coffee futures include the Singapore Commodity Exchange (Robusta), the Commodities & Futures Exchange (BM&F) in Brazil (Arabica) and the Tokyo Grain Exchange (Arabica and Robusta).
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Coffee Trading Tips
Veteran traders will give you a couple of tips about trading related to weather:
- Never be short orange juice going into January.
- Never be short coffee going into July.
The reasoning is the same: the threat of winter freezes. In the case of coffee futures, a freeze or threat of a freeze in Brazil that could be severe enough to damage coffee trees and reduce coffee production, perhaps for several years, can have a substantial impact on prices because of the dominant role Brazil has in the world coffee market. Depending on the world coffee supply situation, some traders are reluctant to be short coffee after May, looking ahead to the Southern Hemisphere s winter season. However, thisseasonal tendency is not real strong because other countries such as Mexico can fill in with coffee supplies.
World Coffee Production
Coffee futures traders should be aware that because coffee production occurs in relatively few countries, it is possible that coffee shipments might be controlled in an effort to boost coffee prices, such as has occurred in the past and similar to what has happened in crude oil and some other markets. Coffee futures prices have been relatively quiet for a number of years but are not immune to blowoff price explosions, as older price charts will reveal.
Coffee Supply and Demand
A coffee tree can provide enough coffee beans to fill a one-pound can of ground coffee during each growing season. Coffee beans are the seeds of cherry-sized berries, the fruit of the coffee tree. It takes 3 to 5 years after planting a coffee tree before it can produce marketable coffee beans.
The bulk of world coffee production comes from the tropical highlands of the Western Hemisphere and in the low, hot areas of Africa and Asia. South and Central America produce the majority of coffee traded in world commerce. The world's major coffee producers are Brazil, Vietnam, Colombia and Indonesia. Brazil and Colombia produce mostly Arabica coffee and together account for more than 40 percent of world coffee production. Vietnam produces Robusta coffee, generally considered to be a lower quality type of coffee than Arabica.
The world produces about 120 to 140 million 60-kilogram bags of coffee per year (one 60-kilo bag equals 132.276 pounds). Coffee production can vary significantly from year to year, depending whether Arabica coffee trees are in the on-year or the off-year of their biennial production cycle. Simply comparing this years output to last years may be misleading for the U.S. coffee futures trader.
The United States is the world s largest importer of coffee. Kraft, Nestl , Procter & Gamble and Sara Lee are the major roaster companies and account for purchases of about 50 percent of all the annual production of coffee. Demand for coffee is price inelastic: When coffee prices rise, people do not reduce their coffee consumption proportionally; when coffee prices fall, consumer demand for coffee does not proportionally increase to any great extent. Seasonally, U.S. coffee consumption tends to rise in the winter, which may lend support to coffee futures prices.
History of Coffee Trading
The International Coffee Organization produces statistics on international coffee production and shipments and promotes coffee trading among nations. Based in London, the ICO consists of 55 coffee producing and consuming member countries and makes available a great deal of data and other information to coffee futures traders.
The Foreign Agricultural Service of the U.S. Department of Agriculture also offers a wealth of coffee information and statistics, including production data by country and for the world, import and export data, etc. The various exchanges that trade coffee futures also have lots of information.